Years ago, doctors often said that pain was a normal part of life. In particular, when older patients 47 complain of pain, they were told it was a natural part of aging and they would have to learn to live with it.
Times have changed. Today, we take pain 48 seriously. Indeed, pain is now considered the fifth vital sign, as important as blood pressure, temperature, breathing rate and pulse in 49 determining a person’s well-being. We know that chronic (慢性的) pain can disrupt (扰乱) a person’s life, causing problems that 50 range from missed work to depression.
That’s why a growing number of hospitals now depend upon physicians who 51 specialize in pain medicine. Not only do we evaluate the cause of the pain, which can help us treat the pain better, but we also help provide comprehensive therapy for depression and other psychological and social 52 issues related to chronic pain. Such comprehensive therapy often 53 involves the work of social workers, psychiatrists (心理医生) and psychologists, as well as specialists in pain medicine.
This modern 54 respect for pain management has led to a wealth of innovative treatments which are more effective and with fewer side effects than ever before. Decades ago, there were only a 55 limited number of drugs available, and many of them caused 56 significant side effects in older people, including dizziness and fatigue. This created a double-edged sword: the medications helped relieve the pain but caused other problems that could be worse than the pain itself.
A) result B)involves C) significant D)range E)relieved
F) issues G)seriously H)magnificent I)determining J) limited
K) gravely L) complained M) respect N) prompting O) specialize
The flood of women into the job market boosted economic growth and changed U.S. society in many ways. Many in-home jobs that used to be done 47 primarily by women—ranging from family shopping to preparing meals to doing 48 voluntary work—still need to be done by someone. Husbands and children now do some of these jobs, a 49 situation that has changed the target market for many products. Or a working woman may face a crushing “poverty of time” and look for help elsewhere, creating opportunities for producers of frozen meals, child care centers, dry cleaners, financial services, and the like.
Although there is still a big wage 50 gap between men and women, the income working women 51 generate gives them new independence and buying power. For example, women now 52 purchase about half of all cars. Not long ago, many cars dealers 53 insulted women shoppers by ignoring them or suggesting that they come back with their husbands. Now car companies have realized that women are 54 potential customers. It’s interesting that some leading Japanese car dealers were the first to 55 really pay attention to women customers. In Japan, fewer women have jobs or buy cars—the Japanese society is still very much male-oriented. Perhaps it was the 56 extreme contrast with Japanese society that prompted American firms to pay more attention to women buyers.
A) scale B) retailed C) generate D) extreme E) technically
F) affordable G)situation H)really I) potential J) gap
K) voluntary L) excessive M) insulted N) purchase O) primarily
El Nino is name given to the mysterious and often unpredictable change in the climate of the world. This strange 47 phenomenon happens every five to eight years. It starts in the Pacific Ocean and is thought to be caused by a failure in the trade winds (信风)，which affects the ocean currents driven by these winds. As the trade winds lessen in 48 strength, the ocean temperatures rise, causing the Peru current flowing in from the east to warm up by as much as 5℃.
The warming of the ocean has far-reaching effects. The hot, humid (潮湿的) air over the ocean causes severe 49 tropical thunderstorms. The rainfall is increased across South America. 50 bringing floods to Peru. In the West pacific, there are droughts affecting Australia and Indonesia. So while some parts of the world prepare for heavy rains and floods, other parts face drought, poor crops and 51 starvation.
El Nino usually lasts for about 18 months. The 1982-83 El Nino brought the most 52 destructive weather in modern history. Its effect was worldwide and it left more than 2,000 people dead and caused over eight billion pounds 53 worth of damage. The 1990 El Nino lasted until June 1995. Scientists 54 estimate this to be the longest El Nino for 2,000 years.
Nowadays, weather experts are able to forecast when an El Nino will 55 strike, but they are still not 56 completely sure what leads to it or what affects how strong it will be.
A estimate B strength C deliberately D notify E tropical
F phenomenon G stable H attraction I completely J destructive
K starvation L bringing M exhaustion N worth O strike
K) projects L) respectively M) role N) technology O) victims